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Lecture1.1

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Lecture1.3

Lecture1.4

Lecture1.5

Lecture1.6

Lecture1.7

Lecture1.8

Lecture1.9

Lecture1.10

Electric Field
Let us consider a point charge Q placed in vacuum, at the origin O. If we place another point charge q at a point P, where OP = r, then the charge Q will exert a force on q as per Coulomb’s law. We may ask the question: If charge q is removed, then what is left in the surrounding? Is there nothing? If there is nothing at the point P, then how does a force act when we place the charge q at P. In order to answer such questions, the early scientists introduced the concept of field. According to this, we say that the charge Q produces an electric field everywhere in the surrounding. When another charge q is brought at some point P, the field there acts on it and produces a force. The electric field produced by the charge Q at a point r is given as
This equation specifies the value of the electric field for each value of the position vector r. The word “field” signifies how some distributed quantity (which could be a scalar or a vector) varies with position. The effect of the charge has been incorporated in the existence of the electric field. We obtain the force F exerted by a charge Q on a charge q, as
Note that the charge q also exerts an equal and opposite force on the charge Q. The electrostatic force between the charges Q and q can be looked upon as an interaction between charge q and the electric field of Q and vice versa. If we denote the position of charge q by the vector r, it experiences a force F equal to the charge q multiplied by the electric field E at the location of q. Thus,
F(r) = q E(r)
Equation defines the SI unit of electric field as N/C.
Some important remarks may be made here:
 From above, we can infer that if q is unity, the electric field due to a charge Q is numerically equal to the force exerted by it. Thus, the electric field due to a charge Q at a point in space may be defined as the force that a unit positive charge would experience if placed at that point. The charge Q, which is producing the electric field, is called a source charge and the charge q, which tests the effect of a source charge, is called a test charge. Note that the source charge Q must remain at its original location. However, if a charge q is brought at any point around Q, Q itself is bound to experience an electrical force due to q and will tend to move. A way out of this difficulty is to make q negligibly small. The force F is then negligibly small but the ratio F/q is finite and defines the electric field:
A practical way to get around the problem (of keeping Q undisturbed in the presence of q) is to hold Q to its location by unspecified forces! This may look strange but actually this is what happens in practice. When we are considering the electric force on a test charge q due to a charged planar sheet (Section 1.15), the charges on the sheet are held to their locations by the forces due to the unspecified charged constituents inside the sheet.
 Note that the electric field E due to Q, though defined operationally in terms of some test charge q, is independent of q. This is because F is proportional to q, so the ratio F/q does not depend on q. The force F on the charge q due to the charge Q depends on the particular location of charge q which may take any value in the space around the charge Q. Thus, the electric field E due to Q is also dependent on the space coordinate r. For different positions of the charge q all over the space, we get different values of electric field E. The field exists at every point in threedimensional space.
 For a positive charge, the electric field will be directed radially outwards from the charge. On the other hand, if the source charge is negative, the electric field vector, at each point, points radially inwards.
 Since the magnitude of the force F on charge q due to charge Q depends only on the distance r of the charge q from charge Q, the magnitude of the electric field E will also depend only on the distance r. Thus at equal distances from the charge Q, the magnitude of its electric field E is same. The magnitude of electric field E due to a point charge is thus same on a sphere with the point charge at its centre; in other words, it has a spherical symmetry.
Electric field due to a system of charges
Consider a system of charges q1, q2, …, qn with position vectors r1, r2, …, rn relative to some origin O. Like the electric field at a point in space due to a single charge, electric field at a point in space due to the system of charges is defined to be the force experienced by a unit test charge placed at that point, without disturbing the original positions of charges q1, q2, …, qn. We can use Coulomb’s law and the superposition principle to determine this field at a point P denoted by position vector r.
Electric field E1 at r due to q1 at r1 is given by
where 1P ˆr is a unit vector in the direction from q1 to P, and r1P is the distance between q1 and P. In the same manner, electric field E2 at r due to q2 at r2 is,
where 2P ˆr is a unit vector in the direction from q2 to P and r2P is the distance between q2 and P. Similar expressions hold good for fields E3, E4, …, En due to charges q3, q4, …, qn.
By the superposition principle, the electric field E at r due to the system of charges is,
E is a vector quantity that varies from one point to another point in space and is determined from the positions of the source charges.
Physical significance of electric field
You may wonder why the notion of electric field has been introduced here at all. After all, for any system of charges, the measurable quantity is the force on a charge which can be directly determined using Coulomb’s law and the superposition principle. Why then introduce this intermediate quantity called the electric field?
For electrostatics, the concept of electric field is convenient, but not really necessary. Electric field is an elegant way of characterising the electrical environment of a system of charges. Electric field at a point in the space around a system of charges tells you the force a unit positive test charge would experience if placed at that point (without disturbing the system). Electric field is a characteristic of the system of charges and is independent of the test charge that you place at a point to determine the field. The term field in physics generally refers to a quantity that is defined at every point in space and may vary from point to point. Electric field is a vector field, since force is a vector quantity.
The true physical significance of the concept of electric field, however, emerges only when we go beyond electrostatics and deal with time dependent electromagnetic phenomena. Suppose we consider the force between two distant charges q1, q2 in accelerated motion. Now the greatest speed with which a signal or information can go from one point to another is c, the speed of light. Thus, the effect of any motion of q1 on q2 cannot arise instantaneously. There will be some time delay between the effect (force on q2) and the cause (motion of q1). It is precisely here that the notion of electric field (strictly, electromagnetic field) is natural and very useful. The field picture is this: the accelerated motion of charge q1 produces electromagnetic waves, which then propagate with the speed c, reach q2 and cause a force on q2. The notion of field elegantly accounts for the time delay. Thus, even though electric and magnetic fields can be detected only by their effects (forces) on charges, they are regarded as physical entities, not merely mathematical constructs. They have an independent dynamics of their own, i.e., they evolve according to laws of their own. They can also transport energy. Thus, a source of time dependent electromagnetic fields, turned on briefly and switched off, leaves behind propagating electromagnetic fields transporting energy. The concept of field was first introduced by Faraday and is now among the central concepts in physics.
ELECTRIC FIELD LINES
We have studied electric field in the last section. It is a vector quantity and can be represented as we represent vectors. Let us try to represent E due to a point charge pictorially. Let the point charge be placed at the origin. Draw vectors pointing along the direction of the electric field with their lengths proportional to the strength of the field at each point. Since the magnitude of electric field at a point decreases inversely as the square of the distance of that point from the charge, the vector gets shorter as one goes away from the origin, always pointing radially outward. Figure 1.15 shows such a picture. In this figure, each arrow indicates the electric field, i.e., the force acting on a unit positive charge, placed at the tail of that arrow. Connect the arrows pointing in one direction and the resulting figure represents a field line. We thus get many field lines, all pointing outwards from the point charge. Have we lost the information about the strength or magnitude of the field now, because it was contained in the length of the arrow? No. Now the magnitude of the field is represented by the density of field lines. E is strong near the charge, so the density of field lines is more near the charge and the lines are closer. Away from the charge, the field gets weaker and the density of field lines is less, resulting in wellseparated lines.
Another person may draw more lines. But the number of lines is not important. In fact, an infinite number of lines can be drawn in any region.
It is the relative density of lines in different regions which is important. We draw the figure on the plane of paper, i.e., in two dimensions but we live in threedimensions. So if one wishes to estimate the density of field lines, one has to consider the number of lines per unit crosssectional area, perpendicular to the lines. Since the electric field decreases as the square of the distance from a point charge and the area enclosing the charge increases as the square of the distance, the number of field lines crossing the enclosing area remains constant, whatever may be the distance of the area from the charge.
We started by saying that the field lines carry information about the direction of electric field at different points in space. Having drawn a certain set of field lines, the relative density (i.e., closeness) of the field lines at different points indicates the relative strength of electric field at those points. The field lines crowd where the field is strong and are spaced apart where it is weak. We can imagine two equal and small elements of area placed at points R and S normal to the field lines there. The number of field lines in our picture cutting the area elements is proportional to the magnitude of field at these points. The picture shows that the field at R is stronger than at S.
To understand the dependence of the field lines on the area, or rather the solid angle subtended by an area element, let us try to relate the area with the solid angle, a generalization of angle to three dimensions. Recall how a (plane) angle is defined in twodimensions. Let a small transverse line element be placed at a distance r from a point O. Then the angle subtended by at O can be approximated as .
Likewise, in threedimensions the solid angle subtended by a small perpendicular plane area , at a distance r, can be written as . We know that in a given solid angle the number of radial field lines is the same. For two points P1 and P2 at distances r1 and r2 from the charge, the element of area subtending the solid angle at P1 and an element of area at P2, respectively. The number of lines (say n) cutting these area elements are the same. The number of field lines, cutting unit area element is therefore at P1 and latex \triangle \ohm latex 1/r^2 $ dependence. The picture of field lines was invented by Faraday to develop an intuitive non mathematical way of visualizing electric fields around charged configurations. Faraday called them lines of force. This term is somewhat misleading, especially in case of magnetic fields. The more appropriate term is field lines (electric or magnetic) that we have adopted in this book.
Electric field lines are thus a way of pictorially mapping the electric field around a configuration of charges. An electric field line is, in general, a curve drawn in such a way that the tangent to it at each point is in the direction of the net field at that point. An arrow on the curve is obviously necessary to specify the direction of electric field from the two possible directions indicated by a tangent to the curve. A field line is a space curve, i.e., a curve in three dimensions.
As mentioned earlier, the field lines are in 3dimensional space, though the figure shows them only in a plane. The field lines of a single positive charge are radially outward while those of a single negative charge are radially inward. The field lines around a system of two positive charges (q, q) give a vivid pictorial description of their mutual repulsion, while those around the configuration of two equal and opposite charges (q, –q), a dipole, show clearly the mutual attraction between the charges. The field lines follow some important general properties:
 Field lines start from positive charges and end at negative charges. If there is a single charge, they may start or end at infinity.
 In a chargefree region, electric field lines can be taken to be continuous curves without any breaks.
 Two field lines can never cross each other. (If they did, the field at the point of intersection will not have a unique direction, which is absurd.)
 Electrostatic field lines do not form any closed loops. This follows from the conservative nature of electric field.